Characterize different biomass feedstocks based on its constituents and properties • Understand the analytical techniques to characterize biomass• Understand and evaluate various biomass pretreatment and processing techniques in terms of their applicability for different biomass types• Evaluate the properties of various biofuels in terms of their use in engines• Design a sustainable biorefinery for biofuels and bioenergy production by combining various processes
Importance of bioenergy and biofuels in solving energy crisis and global warming.Introduction to various biomass types – constituents, characterization. Biomass pretreatment: Acid/alkali treatment, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion, enzymatic, ball milling, other non-conventional techniques, choice of pretreatment based on biomass type. Thermochemical processes: Combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, hydropyrolysis, torrefaction, choice of thermal process based on biomass type and product requirement.Catalytic processes: Catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic upgradation by hydrodeoxygenation, catalytic aqueous phase reforming, influence of catalyst properties on product quality.Biofuels: Bioethanol, biobutanol, higher alcohols, biodiesel, valerates, DMF, furanoids, benzenoids, pyrolysis bio-oil, algal oil – production methods, typical reactions, fuel properties, engine applications.Analytical methods: Proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value, biochemical analysis, thermal analysis.Biorefinery: Integration of various processes, design of a biorefinery by incorporating various unit operations, mass and energy balance, sustainability aspects.
- Pandey, A., Larroche, C., Ricke, S.C., Dussap, C.-G., Gnansounou, E., Biofuels: Alternative feedstocks and conversion processes, Academic Press, U.S.A., 2011.
- Brown, R.C. (Ed.) Thermochemical processing of biomass into fuels, chemicals and power, Wiley, 2011.
- Clark, J., Deswarte, F. (Ed.) Introduction to chemicals from biomass, John Wiley and Sons, U.K., 2008.
- Boot, M. (Ed.) Biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass: Innovations beyond bioethanol, Wiley VCH, 2016.
- Chundawat, S.P.S., Beckham, G.T., Himmel, M.E., Dale, B.E., Deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals, Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 2011, 2, 121-145.
- Serrano-Ruiz, J.C., West, R.M., Dumesic, J.A., Catalytic conversion of renewable biomass resources to fuels and chemicals, Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 2010, 1, 79-100.
- Vassilev, S.V., Baxter, D., Andersen, L.K., Vassileva, C.G., An overview of the chemical composition of biomass, Fuel 2010, 89, 913-933.
- Liu, C., Wang, H., Karim, A.M., Sun, J., Wang, Y., Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2014, 43, 7594-7623.
- Tekin, K., Karagöz, S., Bektaş, S., A review of hydrothermal biomass processing, Renew. Sustainable Energy Rev. 2014, 40, 673-687.
- Huber, G.W., Iborra, S., Corma, A., synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: Chemistry, catalysts and engineering, Chem. Rev. 2006, 106, 4044-4098.
- Mohan, D., Pittman Jr., C.U., Steele, P.H., Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil: A critical review, Energy Fuels 2006, 20, 848-889.