# Equipment

### Equipment

 Fluid Bed Segregator Fluid Bed Segregator finds application in the areas of beneficiation of minerals and agriculture. It is used for separation of solids that differ either in size or density.
Digidrop GBX (Contact Angle Meter)
Surface tension and contact angle measurement between the liquid and the surface are used to predict the wettability, to calculate the spreading coefficient and the surface energy.
Surface Tension
To know the surface tension between the liquid and the surface,
• Interfacial tension between the vapor and the surface is measured using the reference liquids (Water, glycerol, diiodomethance) put on the surface to be analyzed
• Interfacial tension between the liquid and the vapour is measured by pendant drop method
• Contact angle is measured by putting the liquid on the surface.
Hence, surface tension between the liquid and the surface can be calculated.
Contact angle
Contact angle is defined as the angle formed by the liquid-solid and liquid-liquid interfaces when liquid is made to contact the solid surface. This is an important parameter which reveals the surface tension and surface energy values. If the contact angle is greater than 90 Deg, the liquid forms droplets on the solid surface and if it is less than 90 Deg, the liquid spreads out. Contact angle tends to zero when the liquid forms thin film on the surface.
Working principle
Goniometer explained below is of optical type that is geometry of the drop is captured and analyzed.Drop shape analysis is the convenient way to measure contact angle and surface tension.
In this, fluid to be analyzed is loaded using a syringe and image is grabbed either as a single snap shot or as a series of shots leading to a movie. The movie is stored and treated as a database. Data is digitized by the frame grabber as an 8-bit gray scale. Gray scale images are analyzed for linear dimensions, contact angle and surface tension, plus other data that can be derived from these results.
Surface tension is measured by fitting the shape of the drop to the Young-Laplace equation. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression to the shape of the drop and then calculating the slope of the tangent to the drop at the Liquid-Solid Vapor interface line.
Principle assumptions
• The drop is symmetric about a central vertical axis this means that it is irrelevant from which direction the drop is viewed.
• The drop is not in motion in the sense that viscosity or inertia are playing a role in determining its shape: this means that interfacial tension and gravity are the only forces shaping the drop.
• Calibration is straight forward in that only optical magnification is needed.
• This can be measured with high accuracy and is easy to trace to national standards.
• Solid surfaces of the apparatus involved need not have any special cleanliness because their wettabilitity, per se, does not affect the result. This is a significant advantage over such techniques as the Wilhelmy plate where cleanliness is required.

Faculty In-charge: Abhijit P. Deshpande
Student In-charge: Ranajit Mondal

The Phantom Miro 110 is a 1 megapixel colour camera with 1.6 Gigapixels/second (Gpx/s) throughput. This translates to over 1,600 frames-per-second (fps) at full 1280 x 800 resolution. Frame rates up to 400,000 fps are available at reduced resolutions. The minimum digital exposure is 2 µs.

Location: MSB 147
Faculty-in-charge: Prof. R. Raghunathan
For further details:Arun Sankar E M

Inverted Microscope (Make: Leica, Model: DMI3000B) is a light microscope with its lightsource and condenser on the top while objective is located below the stage. Inverted microscopes are useful for observing living cells or organisms at the bottom of a large container more clearly than on a glass slide. Currently, this micrscope is installed with 20X, 63X, 100X objectives with the provisions for more addition (5X, 10X). We have different modes of microscopy to study the specimen more clearly and are named as brightfield, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence microscopy.

Keithley Model 6221 AC and DC Current Source provide lower noise and higher accuracy current sourcing, including output AC and arbitrary (ARB) waveforms (6221). They are used with the Keithley Model 2182A nanovoltmeter. 6221/2182A combination is used in these types of applications: Differential conductance; low-power pulse or low-power resistance measurements; or four-point resistivity, Hall measurement, and/or conductivity type testing.Specifications:

6221 AC and DC Current Source:

• Range 2nA to 100mA with a resolution of 100 fA
• WAVEFORMS: Sine, Square, Ramp, and 4 User Defined Arbitrary Waveforms.
• OUTPUT RESISTANCE: >10^14Ω. (2nA/20nA range)
• OUTPUT CAPACITANCE: <10pF, <100pF Filter ON. (2nA/20nA range)

2182A Nanovoltmeter:

• Range: 10mV to 100V with a resolution of 1nV
• DELTA MODE RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS and DIFFERENTIAL CONDUCTANCE: Controls Keithley Model2182A Nanovoltmeter at up to 24Hz reversal rate (2182 at up to12Hz).
• PULSE MEASUREMENTS: Pulse widths 50μs to 12ms, 1pA to 100mA.

A Langmuir–Blodgett trough is a laboratory apparatus that is used to compress monolayers of molecules on the surface of a given subphase (usually water) and measures surface phenomena due to this compression. It can also be used to deposit single or multiple monolayers on a solid substrate.

 Liquid – Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed Liquid-Solid circulating fluidized beds find application in the areas of hydromettalurgy, food technology, biochemical processing, waste water treatment and fermentation technology.

Thermal metal evaporator (QUORUM Technologies, Q150T) is one of the dry chemical metal deposition methods. It involves evaporating a metal fed in the form of wires, grunuels, and discs under ultra high vacuum (~ 10-6 mbar) so that a vapor particles travel directly to target substrate and get deposited. The thickness of the metal film can be easily controlled by amount of material and time of deposition. Additionally, the stage is provided with spinning motion to ensure uniform coating everywhere. For more details please visit www.quorumtech.com

Faculty In-charge: Ethyaraja Mani
Student In-charge: Yogesh Shelke

100W halogen light for both reflected and transmitted illumination. This has the following features: 10X eye piece, revolving nose piece, 5 objective lenses (5X,10X, 20X, 50X and 100X) maximum sample height of 38 mm and maximum sample size of 150 x 150 mm.

Location: MSB 147
Faculty-in-charge: Prof. R. Raghunathan
For further details:Arun Sankar E M

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